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HISTORY OF ECOLOGYThe growth of philosophical interest in biology over the past thirty years reflects the increasing prominence of the biological sciences in the same period. There is now an extensive literature on many different biological topics, and it would be impossible to summarise this body of work in this single entry. Instead, this entry sets out to explain what philosophy of biology is. Why does biology matter to philosophy and vice versa? A list of the entries in the encyclopedia which address specific topics in the philosophy of biology is provided at the end of the entry. Three different kinds of philosophical enquiry fall under the general heading of philosophy of biology.
Environment and Ecology - Part 1 - हिंदी में - UPSC CSE/ IAS Preparation - Vimal Singh Rathore
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Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural , social , and built environments. The philosophy and study of human ecology has a diffuse history with advancements in ecology , geography , sociology , psychology , anthropology , zoology , epidemiology , public health , and home economics , among others. The roots of ecology as a broader discipline can be traced to the Greeks and a lengthy list of developments in natural history science. Ecology also has notably developed in other cultures. Traditional knowledge, as it is called, includes the human propensity for intuitive knowledge, intelligent relations, understanding, and for passing on information about the natural world and the human experience. Like other contemporary researchers of his time, Haeckel adopted his terminology from Carl Linnaeus where human ecological connections were more evident. In his publication, Specimen academicum de oeconomia naturae , Linnaeus developed a science that included the economy and polis of nature.
Herausgeber: Haberl , H. This book presents the current state of the art in Social Ecology as practiced by the Vienna School of Social Ecology, globally one of the main research groups in this field. The conceptual and methodological foundations of Social Ecology are discussed in detail, allowing the reader to obtain a broad overview of current socioecological thinking. Issues covered include socio-metabolic transitions, socioecological approaches to land use, the relation between actor-centered and system approaches, a socioecological theory of labor and the importance of legacies, as conceived in Environmental History and in Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research. To underpin this overview empirically, the strengths of socioecological research are elucidated in cases of cutting-edge research, introducing a variety of themes the Vienna School has been tackling empirically over the past years. Given how the field is presented — reflecting research carried out on different scales, reaching from local to global as well as from past to present and future — and due to the way the book is structured, it is suitable for classroom use, as a primer, and also as an overview of how Social Ecology evolved, right up to its current research frontiers.
Energy, Environment, Ecology, And Society - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text This book is meant for students of different branches of engineering and is .
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Despite growing awareness and efforts to conserve biodiversity, ecosystems worldwide are still declining Botsford et al. Policy-makers and scientists too often frame the targets of diverse and productive ecosystems and healthy human societies as if they were in opposition Raudsepp-Hearne et al.
Applied historical ecology is the use of historical knowledge in the management of ecosystems. Historical perspectives increase our understanding of the dynamic nature of landscapes and provide a frame of reference for assessing modern patterns and processes. Historical timeframes range from decades to millennia. As Aldo Leopold observed, "A science of land health needs, first of all, a base datum of normality, a picture of how healthy land maintains itself as an organism. Multiple, comparative histories from many locations can help evaluate both cultural and natural causes of variability and characterize the overall dynamic properties of ecosystems Swetnam et al. In fact, twentieth-century trends suggest that disregarding history can be perilous. Examples include the emergence of increasingly severe wildfire activity in the western United States and the role of extreme drought in triggering forest dieback and accelerated soil erosion in the American Southwest.