Attachment theory and close relationships pdf
Attachment in adults - WikipediaResearch on adult attachment is guided by the assumption that the same motivational system that gives rise to the close emotional bond between parents and their children is responsible for the bond that develops between adults in emotionally intimate relationships. The objective of this essay is to provide a brief overview of the history of adult attachment research, the key theoretical ideas, and a sampling of some of the research findings. This essay has been written for people who are interested in learning more about research on adult attachment. The theory of attachment was originally developed by John Bowlby - , a British psychoanalyst who was attempting to understand the intense distress experienced by infants who had been separated from their parents. Bowlby observed that separated infants would go to extraordinary lengths e. At the time of Bowlby's initial writings, psychoanalytic writers held that these expressions were manifestations of immature defense mechanisms that were operating to repress emotional pain, but Bowlby noted that such expressions are common to a wide variety of mammalian species, and speculated that these behaviors may serve an evolutionary function. Drawing on ethological theory, Bowlby postulated that these attachment behaviors , such as crying and searching, were adaptive responses to separation from a primary attachment figure --someone who provides support, protection, and care.
Introduction to R
Fearful avoidant is one of four key styles of attachment proposed by psychologist John Bowlby, who developed attachment theory. When studying the interactions between infants and their caregivers, Bowlby noticed that infants had a need to be in close proximity to their caregivers and that they often became quite distressed when separated. Bowlby suggested that this response was part of an evolved behavior: because young infants are dependent upon parents for caregiving, forming a close attachment to parents is evolutionarily adaptive. For example, if a child's parents are generally responsive and supportive when he or she is distressed, attachment theory would predict that the child would become a trusting adult. On the other hand, a child whose parents responded inconsistently or negatively might have difficulty trusting others upon reaching adulthood.
Attachment Theory is an area of psychology that describes the nature of emotional attachment between humans. It begins as children with our attachment to our parents. Attachment theory began in the s and has since amassed a small mountain of research behind it. According to psychologists, there are four attachment strategies adults can adopt: secure, anxious, avoidant, and anxious-avoidant. People with secure attachment strategies are comfortable displaying interest and affection. They are also comfortable being alone and independent.
In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individuals who have insecure adult romantic attachment orientations typically think, feel, and behave when they or their romantic partners encounter certain types of chronic or acute stress. We then discuss a diathesis-stress process model that has guided our research, highlighting studies that provide support for certain pathways of the model. These behavioral tendencies increased the chances of surviving to reproductive age, which permitted the genes that coded for the attachment system to be passed on to offspring [ 4 ]. This principle is one of the fundamental tenets of attachment theory. For several years, we and others have investigated how individuals who have different adult romantic attachment orientations think, feel, and behave in different types of stressful situations. Following these footsteps, we have conceptualized attachment insecurity as a diathesis that can generate maladaptive interpersonal responses to certain stressful or threatening events [ 6 ]. The primary purpose of the attachment behavioral system is to increase the likelihood that vulnerable individuals survive the perils of childhood [ 1 ].