Africa and the discovery of america pdf

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africa and the discovery of america pdf

Africa and the discovery of America | Open Library

Stevenson, Africa and the Discovery of America. Volume I. Philadelphia: Innes and Sons. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in.
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Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened

v Foreword. Sources quoted ( The journal of the first voyage and the first letter of Columbus. The second voyage. Tobacco. The bread.

Africa and the Discovery of America

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Africa and the discovery of America

Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories speculate about possible visits to or interactions with the Americas , the indigenous peoples of the Americas , or both, by people from Africa , Asia , Europe , or Oceania at a time prior to Christopher Columbus ' first voyage to the Caribbean in i. Only one historical case of pre-Columbian contact is widely accepted among the scientific and scholarly mainstream. Maritime explorations by Norse peoples from Scandinavia during the late 10th century led to the Norse colonization of Greenland and of L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland , [3] which preceded Columbus' arrival in the Americas by some years. Scientific and scholarly responses to other claims of post-prehistory, pre-Columbian contact have varied. Some of these claims are examined in reputable peer-reviewed sources. Many others—especially those based on circumstantial or ambiguous interpretations of archaeological evidence, alleged out-of-place artifacts , superficial cultural comparisons, comments in historical documents, or narrative accounts—have been dismissed as fringe science , pseudoarchaeology , or pseudohistory.

Those interested in further research are strongly urged to read Dr. Ancient America was not isolated from the old world as many historians and anthropologists would have us believe. People from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean traveled great distances, mingled with each other and exchanged knowledge and products. Long before Columbus became aware of the possibility of land in the west, Muslims, among other people, had made contact with the Americas and had already left an impression on the Native culture Knowledge, agricultural products, livestock, metals, and other commercial items were exchanged between the two worlds.

While working on a Comparative Grammar of Ameri can Languages, I was confronted with a number of words which seemed to observe perfectly the phonetic laws, indicative of extreme old age, and yet were obviously introductions from Europe after the discovery of America. When I began my scrutiny, I was firmly convinced, as is the universal belief, that tobacco, manioc, yams, sweet potatoes and peanuts were bless ings bestowed upon the world by the Indians. A cursory study excluded the yams and the manioc. Soon the peanuts followed in their wake. Next came the sweet potatoes, and at last the tobacco. It turned out that American archaeology was to a great extent built on sand. But the most painful discovery was in the line of Indian religion.


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