Flintknapping making and understanding stone tools pdf
Flintknapping: Making and Understanding Stone Tools [email protected]@The flake is the most basic element in flintknapping, and a flake is struck from a rock called a core. A flake generally has very sharp edges, making it useful for cutting, scraping, and carving. Some flakes are worked into projectile points for an atlatl or bow. Flintknappers primarily use two techniques to remove flakes: percussion striking flakes and pressure flaking pushing flakes. In percussion flaking, the flinknapper uses a hammerstone first, then switches over to a billet for finer flaking work. In pressure flaking, flintknappers use a finer tool like tines from deer antlers and a pushing-pressure to remove small flakes in a more controlled manner.
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Picture it: you belong to a band of early Paleolithic peoples. As a group, you are running low on food stores, and you need to find a way to feed your people. Will you hunt or gather to obtain your food? How will you make these tools given the resources available to you? In essence, it involves a process in which stone tools are created by striking a rock at specific points, known as percussion, or by pressure flaking. This practice yields a myriad of tools, such as arrowheads, burins, knives, blades, dart points, spear points, scrapers, drills, and bifaces, among others.
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Knapping is the shaping of flint , chert , obsidian or other conchoidal fracturing stone through the process of lithic reduction to manufacture stone tools , strikers for flintlock firearms, or to produce flat-faced stones for building or facing walls, and flushwork decoration. The original Germanic term "knopp" meant strike, shape, or work, so it could theoretically have referred equally well to making a statue or dice. Modern usage is more specific, referring almost exclusively to the hand-tool pressure-flaking process pictured. Flintknapping or knapping is done in a variety of ways depending on the purpose of the final product. For stone tools and flintlock strikers, chert is worked using a fabricator such as a hammerstone to remove lithic flakes from a nucleus or core of tool stone. Stone tools can then be further refined using wood, bone, and antler tools to perform pressure flaking. For building work a hammer or pick is used to split chert nodules supported on the lap.