History of internet and world wide web pdf
Internet History Timeline: ARPANET to the World Wide Web | Live ScienceThe term is often mistakenly used as a synonym for the Internet itself and often called "the Internet", but the Web is a service that operates over the Internet, just as email also e-mail and Usenet also does. The history of the Internet dates back significantly further than that of the World Wide Web. Paul Otlet 's Mundaneum project has also been named as an early 20th century precursor of the Web. The concept of a global information system connecting homes is prefigured in " A Logic Named Joe ", a short story by Murray Leinster , in which computer terminals, called "logics," are present in every home. Although the computer system in the story is centralized, the story anticipates a ubiquitous information environment similar to the Web. The cultural impact of the web was imagined even further back in a short story by E.
A Very Short History Of The Internet And The Web
This timeline highlights the major and some minor developments in the evolution of these twin flowers of the digital age, one the Internet a network infrastructure, the other the Web a software infrastructure layered on top of it. Three key themes or tensions arise from this very short history of the Internet and the Web: 1. Centralization vs. Applying a pre-conceived taxonomy to a body of knowledge vs. One-way consumption vs. In the Preface , Chambers explained his innovative system of cross-references:.
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The Internet began as a U. S Department of Defense network to link scientists and university professors around the world. A network of networks, today, the Internet serves as a global data communications system that links millions of private, public, academic and business networks via an international telecommunications backbone that consists of various electronic and optical networking technologies.
The history of the Internet has its origin in the efforts of wide area networking that originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, and France. In the early s the NSF funded the establishment for national supercomputing centers at several universities, and provided interconnectivity in with the NSFNET project, which also created network access to the supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. Commercial Internet service providers ISPs began to emerge in the very late s. Limited private connections to parts of the Internet by officially commercial entities emerged in several American cities by late and ,  and the NSFNET was decommissioned in , removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic. In the s, research at CERN in Switzerland by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee resulted in the World Wide Web , linking hypertext documents into an information system, accessible from any node on the network.
Regardless of whether you grew up with computers or were introduced to them in adulthood, it is difficult now to imagine a world in which the internet does not exist. We rely on the internet to manage our money, search for jobs, represent ourselves professionally, and keep in contact with loved ones across the country or even across the world. We use the internet to research, to learn, and to enable ourselves to complete projects we would not know how to do without looking up instructions. Businesses use the internet to collaborate across offices and even across the hall. Financial transactions are handled in seconds. Communication is instantaneous.