C traps and pitfalls pdf download
C Traps and Pitfalls .chm
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The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort.
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Although the limitations of pitfall traps in respect to trait filtering and reflecting diversity and abundances in a habitat appropriately have been intensively discussed, the method is still the best standardized and comparable approach to study ground dwelling arthropods and due to comparative low handling time allows for sufficient replication Driscoll, ; Kotze et al. Different features of pitfall trap designs have undergone review and research over the last decades in order to improve and standardize trap designs: colour of traps Buchholz et al. However, the authors did not consider additions to pitfall trap designs such as extended rim plates or guidance barriers although these have been used in previous studies. In a conventional simple pitfall trap as proposed by the pioneers Dahl , Barber and Greenslade which is basically a container sunk in the soil, a large proportion of ground dwelling beetle species occurring in a habitat will not be detected with sufficient certainty as they are comparatively rare in assemblages Driscoll, To overcome this limitation without increasing the sampling effort and workload, guidance barrier pitfall traps have been introduced.