Providence and the problem of evil pdf
Providence and the Problem of Evil - E-bok - Richard Swinburne () | BokusThe evidential problem of evil is the problem of determining whether and, if so, to what extent the existence of evil or certain instances, kinds, quantities, or distributions of evil constitutes evidence against the existence of God , that is to say, a being perfect in power, knowledge and goodness. Evidential arguments from evil attempt to show that, once we put aside any evidence there might be in support of the existence of God, it becomes unlikely, if not highly unlikely, that the world was created and is governed by an omnipotent, omniscient, and wholly good being. Such arguments are not to be confused with logical arguments from evil , which have the more ambitious aim of showing that, in a world in which there is evil, it is logically impossible—and not just unlikely—that God exists. This entry begins by clarifying some important concepts and distinctions associated with the problem of evil, before providing an outline of one of the more forceful and influential evidential arguments developed in contemporary times, namely, the evidential argument advanced by William Rowe. These and other responses to the evidential problem of evil are here surveyed and assessed.
Providence and the Problem of Evil
Aquinas argued that a human being's life is divided into two unequal portions, one very small portion before death and another, infinitely enduring, after death. Aquinas held that the state of a person at the end of the smaller portion of his life determines his state in the infinitely extended portion of his life after death. Aquinas's views of the best thing and the worst thing for human beings mark out a scale of value on which human suffering and the benefits that might be thought to redeem it can be measured. Aquinas himself thinks that acceptance of the view that there is an afterlife and that true happiness consists in union with God in that afterlife is essential to his theodicy. It is also important to recognize that the best thing, the upper limit of Aquinas's scale of value for human lives, comes in degrees. Aquinas argued that human beings differ greatly in what constitutes for them the peak human condition of union with God.
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Unless he has very strong reason for supposing that there is a God, a theist needs a theodicy or at least needs to begin to develop one in order justifiably to believe that there is a God. Part 3 shows how the possibility of moral evil, and the actual occurrence of natural evil Part 3 shows how the possibility of moral evil, and the actual occurrence of natural evil providing knowledge of possible good and bad actions, and the scope for good response are necessary to secure these ends. God has the right to allow some creatures to suffer for the benefit of others, so long as he compensates them in this life or after death. The expected value of allowing the evils in order to achieve the good goals is positive.