Clayden organic chemistry pdf download free
Clayden Organic Chemistry
In organic chemistry , a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups called hydrocarbyls. Aromatic hydrocarbons arenes , alkanes , cycloalkanes and alkyne -based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons. Most hydrocarbons found on Earth naturally occur in crude oil , where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains. Hydrocarbons can be gases e. Because of differences in molecular structure, the empirical formula remains different between hydrocarbons; in linear or "straight-run" alkanes, alkenes and alkynes, the amount of bonded hydrogen lessens in alkenes and alkynes due to the "self-bonding" or catenation of carbon preventing entire saturation of the hydrocarbon by the formation of double or triple bonds. This inherent ability of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is known as catenation , and allows hydrocarbons to form more complex molecules, such as cyclohexane , and in rarer cases, arenes such as benzene.
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